FAQ

How does the security platform offered by SRAM PUF and Microsoft compare to that of eMemory?
  • SRAM PUF has been in the market for ten years and their main supplier is Intrinsic ID which was a division of Philips Labs. Intrinsic ID owns the technology of error correction algorithm while the technology of SRAM owned by the factory. The SRAM needs error correction algorithm because of the following reasons: SRAM PUF is a volatile memory, when there is no power, the data in SRAM will disappear; and when you turn on the power again, the data of SRAM may change and doesn’t revert back to its original data. The volatility of SRAM PUF makes it difficult to be used as a PUF due to its unreliability. However, many early customers who rely on SRAM PUF don’t have an alternative. Therefore, we developed eMemory’s NeoPUF which is a derivative of our OTP. Compared with SRAM PUF, NeoPUF is more robust and unpredictable and offers better functionality and cost-efficiency.

    For a more detailed comparison between SRAM PUF and NeoPUF, we actually have two articles here at:
    1.https://blog.pufsecurity.com/2020/02/19/sram-puf-is-increasingly-vulnerable/

    2.https://blog.pufsecurity.com/2020/03/27/neopuf-a-reliable-and-non-traceable-quantum-tunneling-puf/

    The platforms of both Microsoft and Google are for doing cloud business. They are not using PUF for their security methods which make them vulnerable to certain attacks. We’re currently under discussion with them on how we can collaborate to enhance the security of their cloud platform through our security IP.

Your IP on DDIC and PMIC is already used as an industry standard. Are there other applications where potentially eMemory’s IPs could also achieve this position?
  • There are many applications with the adoption of our IPs, for example, ISP, DRAM, DTV/STB, Bluetooth, WiFi, and etc. Typically, once a customer adopts our IPs they achieve better performance over their competitors, leading to a market share gain. So, we expect their competitors to follow on by adopting our IPs. We have seen this scenario in the past with applications such as DDI, PMIC, and Fingerprint sensors. Therefore, we believe that it is just a matter of time for our IP to be widely used in those applications.

Will the collection of royalties from design companies be the same as foundries in the first month of the following quarter after production? How are royalties paid and what are the payment methods?
  • Currently, eMemory collects royalties from foundries and IDMs. Only when design houses adopt our subsidiary PUF security solution, there will be extra royalty incurred. The payment will be the same time as their wafer shipments of foundries. We also charge by percentage of wafer price.

Will customers who use the NeoPUF process platform also use NeoFuse simultaneously?
  • Yes, firstly, NeoPUF is based on NeoFuse process platform. And, customers use NeoPUF for security key and UID generation. So, customers will surely need OTP IP together for security usage.

Please explain the competition and collaboration relationship with ARMv9.
  • There is no competition as we work closely with ARM. ARM offers CPU IP whereas eMemory offers logic NVM and hardware security IP. For the increasing demand in higher computing performance as well as security level, the collaboration between the two parties will become closer. ARMv9 is a CPU solution, and we support ARMv9 to have a better security level.

What safety measures are being taken to ensure the safety of your employees in this changing pandemic environment?
  • As you know in Taiwan, we are facing increasing numbers of infected cases these days. We have some measures taken, and are always paying close attention to the actual pandemic situation domestically. Basically, we require our employees to take body temperature measurements when they arrive at the office. We also request employees to have meetings online rather than visiting customer onsite. This reduces the risk of our employees and customers from getting infected. In the meantime, we follow the latest progress and the government’s regulation in taking any related actions. We are considering starting work-from-home (WFH) for our employees so that we can secure our business and also keep employees safe.

Recently, international hackers have been rampant, and the issue of information security has evolved into a national security issue. Can eMemory’s hardware security IP protect against such hacker attacks? Will the adoption of the applications be accelerated?
  • There are so many attacks on software nowadays, so, software security is no longer enough to protect the systems. So, yes, the adoption of high-level security will be accelerated, and eMemory’s PUF-based security offers unique identity, secure storage, authentication and anti-counterfeit features and can protect against such attacks. Large system companies are focusing on creating ‘Zero-Trust’ network solutions that requires every device to perform verification, authorization, and authentication. This could be provided by a hardware PUF key (which can be easily self-generated by PUF in the device) to protect the system security through the hardware.

Can quantum computing be able to crack eMemory’s PUF? Is NeoPUF still useful for future quantum computing?
  • Quantum computing cannot crack down eMemorys’s PUF. Quantum computing offers super computation power and can only use ‘brute force’ to try every combination from a huge pool of numbers to find the right number. As Charles explained in previous investor conference call, eMemory’s NeoPUF technology is based on existing CMOS process. It features 100% randomness and robustness. Because of its unique features, product designers can easily have sufficient security key bit-steam (that is so-called a longer key length). With that, this would be harder than identifying a single grain of sand across the whole earth, in a very short time. So, it is very unlikely.

Who is your competitor in ‘Zero Trust’ security? Does someone else offer this?
  • We are a security root of trust provider for ‘Zero Trust’ security as ‘Zero Trust’ security is a huge regime (not a product). There is a couple of competition in providing hardware security to security solution in the market, which is competing in intrinsic ID for PUF, security IP will be inside secure or secure IC companies. Even if there is a few competition in security provider, eMemory alone has the complete solution, with PUF and OTP, and solutions with digital design for integrated PUF with OTP and TRNG.

Please explain what HSM is.
  • HSM (Hardware Security Module) is basically putting security into hardware, which can provide security services such as encryption, authentication, authorization, and data integrity. HSM can provide key generation, key storage and crypto engine to provide all kinds of security services.

Are there any limitations for your IPs as you move forward into the newest technology platforms? Can it work for say 2nm GAA?
  • There is no limitation and we are confident it will work for the GAA structure. Since the transistor is always a MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) structure, which is the basis for our OTP technology, our processes remain robust and able to scale.

TSMC has been emphasizing that HPC drives semiconductor demand in their past earnings call. What contribution does this have to the company?
  • We believe so. Our security solutions, combined with NeoFuse and NeoPUF, are set to be fully introduced in the advanced FinFET process, expanding their application. We are confident that our PUF-based solutions provide the highest level of security when compared to the competition. We are well placed to ‘cross the chasm’ into the mainstream market as customers shift their production. Many potential customers that are waiting for a clear leader to emerge before adopting a solution. Our growing production record and superior benchmarking lead us to believe that this will likely be our IPs.

The company mentioned that if customers use NeoPUF, they will also use NeoFuse. Will the licensing fee and royalties be charged double? Is the price of NeoPUF higher than NeoFuse?
  • Our NeoFuse provides a secure storage function and NeoPUF provides secure key generation. Both are essential for security applications. We can provide integrated IPs that have a comprehensive solution with a “one stop shop”. Such integrated IPs will have a higher upfront fee and royalty than the single one.

When does NeoBit's patent expire?
  • Generally, a patent grant period is 20-years. However, when we license our technology to foundry/IDM, it is not just a single patent. It is actually a patent group that includes bit-cell structure, operation scheme, array architecture, design circuit, and relevant process patents and know-how. Besides, we will continue to add new patents and features to make our licensed technology more powerful and useful. That is the reason we can keep providing the best solutions to our foundry partners and customers. For example, our NeoBit cell patent was applied again in 2014 due to continuous improvement of cell structure and design to extend the expiration date to 2034. Similar will be applied to our other technologies. So, we are not worried about the due date of a single patent.

Will eMemory also collects royalties for the mass production of PUFsecurity’s products?
  • From our business model, we collect royalty from foundries according to our OTP/PUF technology license grant to them. Additional design royalty will be collected from fabless customers per their security IP requirement from PUFsecurity. That is the business model we are running now.

What is the progress status and potential development applications for MRAM and ReRAM?
  • For MRAM, we are developing in 22nm ULP process with partners. As for ReRAM, we just completed the qualification in 40nm process node and are developing the 22nm now. For these emerging memories, they can be used as NVM for Analog ICs (like SoC PMIC), MCU, SoC, ASIC, and Edge AI. They also can be used as Cache memory for CPU and Mobile.

WiFi 6 has evolved into WiFi 6E and even to WiFi 7. What changes does this have for the use of NeoFuse?
  • WiFi 6 and WiFi 7 will use the same security architecture, therefore NeoFuse can be used in the same way to store the private key. NeoFuse is replacing eFuse for key storage for higher security request.

The company hopes that in the future PUF will be used in every chip. Why will every chip need a PUF solution?
  • There are quite a few companies who provide CPU have invited us to cooperate with them using our PUF-based security solutions with their CPU. It is our goal that, in the future, all chips need PUF-based security solution as security requirement becomes higher.

Compared to the past, has the development process for advanced nodes, from initial development to mass production, accelerated or slowed down? Take, for example, the 28nm process node.
  • Compared to the past, the complexity of the design, the number of masks, production processes, and functional verification for advanced manufacturing processes have greatly increased. Therefore, the time from development to mass production will be much longer.

    However, because of our credibility from the past, once we have a production record for new technology and new process nodes, customers will speed up the adoption of our IPs. In addition, our license fee and royalties will also increase because the wafer ASP of advanced processes is much higher than that of mature processes. For example, the foundry wafer price and license fee of 28nm will probably be four or five times more than that of 0.18um, which will definitely increase our revenue.

Will emerging memory MRAM and ReRAM replace eMemory’s current OTP and MTP markets?
  • Emerging memory like MRAM and ReRAM target the traditional embedded flash market. Compared to embedded flash, ReRAM and MRAM require fewer mask layers and are much easier for process integration which can maintain the existing device model. Furthermore, they are applicable to more leading process nodes, especially after 28nm. Our OTP can work as a security and repair function to protect and correct the data stored in emerging memory. Therefore, these emerging memory help extend our technology portfolios but not replace our existing technologies.

Along with traditional applications in DDI, PMIC, DRAM, and Multimedia, what other areas of applications can NeoFuse 12-inch grow significantly. What is the target market share of 12-inch in the future? (Excluding NeoPUF)
  • Besides those traditional applications, we also have NeoFuse OTP adopted in 12-inch wafer processes like ISP, CIS, TWS, WiFi, Network IC, SSD Controller, AI SoC, ADAS, and other applications. We expect they will have obvious growth in the near future. It will also help increase our royalty ASP and bring in more design license fees as well.

How are the certification progress and implementation status for MRAM/ReRAM? Does eMemory own the IP? Is the business model still charging royalties?
  • As mentioned in our joint press release last week, our ReRAM IP was qualified on the UMC 40nm process. We are also working on 22nm process node for both ReRAM and MRAM technology development, and designs in ongoing projects. Fab customers license memory cells from patent owners (for example, IBM for MRAM or Panasonic for ReRAM). Based on the memory cell, we add the circuit design to become a complete IP. Our business model remains the same; we will charge the negotiated royalty rate of MRAM/ReRAM according to wafer price after the initial license.  

Does eMemory expect NeoFuse and NeoPUF to significantly mass-produce and increase the revenue and royalties in 2023 or 2024? Will it take longer?
  • NeoFuse’s royalty has increased significantly already. We have also started to receive some royalty income from NeoPUF technology. With the production record, we expect more customer adoption to come and drive royalty growth.

Are eMemory IPs applicable to Metaverse-related applications?
  • Yes. VR/AR devices will use DDI, power, sensor, low power embedded memory MCU, and the connection speed will require at least WiFi 6E, which will use our IP. For example, our IPs are already applied into HoloLens. After that, there will be security requirements, which will require PUF.

The concept of Metaverse requires information security. What potential role can eMemory play in Metaverse?
  • As mentioned earlier, besides the fact that our IPs will be applied to various chips, eMemory’s role in Metaverse is mainly to provide chip hardware root of trust and co-processor solutions and help servers and connected devices by providing the unique identity, key generation and authentication, and encryption and decryption functions required for Metaverse’s secure network connection.

What are the target applications for automotive?
  • Our logic NVM and security IPs are used in automotive applications like ADAS, various kinds of sensors (for example, TPMS, CIS, temperature/light/motion sensors), PMIC, Infotainment Display and Security Protection applications. We offer IP solutions from 0.25um to 7nm, which all have customer adoption already.

Looking at the history of eMemory, the business model has evolved. In the beginning, no one guessed that eMemory’s technology could play such an important role in semiconductor applications. Can you discuss the company’s development direction for the next ten years and beyond?
  • eMemory’s business model has not changed since we launched our IP business.  In the early days, our IPs were widely used in analog related chips. With our innovation into the security area, for the next ten years and beyond, we will continue developing technology and extending it to every IC. Security will be a tremendous driving force behind that!

How does the current shortage of automotive chips affect eMemory’s revenue? What is automotive’s proportion in eMemory’s revenue? Do you expect future growth in automotive applications?
  • We did not classify the automotive segment as some of our existing customers supplied their chips to all smartphones, industrial and automotive applications, for example, DDI for Infotainment, Sensor, and MCU, or PMIC for EV cars.

    In addition, as our technologies are ready in leading edge process nodes, we have expanded our IPs into the autonomous driving platform, which will be applied into ADAS and various networking chips. We do expect automotive contribution to be one of driving force for our growth in the future.

In the past, management had predicted the market share for the 8” and 12” market. Can management also offer a prediction for eMemory’s possible market share in hardware security?
  • For 5G and IoT relevant security needs, security is essential for particular processors, which are mainly in production on the 12-inch leading process node. Therefore, we believe our market share in 12-inch will be higher than in 8-inch as our solution is much better and more secure than existing eFuse solutions. 

Based on the company's current partnership with PUF customers, what applications and process nodes are these customers targeting? Based on the company’s current partnership with PUF customers, what applications and process nodes are these customers targeting?
  • As mentioned earlier, our PUF-based security solutions are under progress in applications of IoT, Industrial IoT, AI, FPGA, Data Processor Unit (DPU), WiFi and Automotive fields. Their relevant process nodes range from 40nm to 7nm.

Last year, eMemory mentioned transforming into a security as a service company. Is the goal of PUFsecurity to become a security as a service company, or do they have other plans?
  • I would like to clarify that it is not for business transformation. It is to expand our new business, which is based on our fundamental NeoPUF technology. We can provide an integrated one-stop shop for security solutions to customers.

What is the relationship between eMemory's IP and virtual currency? What can it be used for?
  • We have crypto-mining customers who adopted our NeoPUF, mainly for security functions. In addition, using NeoPUF as the private key for storing cryptocurrency is the most secure method, making PUF an ideal choice for implementation across various digital wallets. Furthermore, using the private key generated by PUF as a digital signature in different blockchain applications is the simplest, safest, and most convenient security method.

How does PUFsecurity plan to quickly educate its customers on how to use PUF and PUF-based solutions? What is the current progress of PUFsecurity’s software development? How can the collaboration with ARM expand the product application base?
  • PUFsecurity regularly publishes new product information and security technology design white papers through social media, and webinars with various application themes. In addition, there is also the PUF Academy, which provides several hardware security-training courses to educate the market and help chip designers implement our solution into their design. 

    The software development is mainly aimed at developing and verifying various software/firmware and APIs required for PUF-based IP solutions.

    Our subsidiary, PUFsecurity, is currently working with CPU IP vendors to develop the SoC chip security design architecture for their customers.

We know that security is essential in the 5G era. What is the estimated total market value for security in 2025? Moreover, what percentage of this total would you estimate would be for hardware security?
  • The connected world from 5G and IoT will need security IPs for ID setting, authentication and secure communication functions. For 5G and IoT markets, they are in the order of several billion devices per year. We believe that hardware security’s protection function will perform much better than software. Hardware security will also play a major part in the long run.

Apple M1/AMD/Nvidia chips all emphasize the connection between processor and memory. Will eMemory's experience in memory development benefit from this trend?
  • Our OTP and PUF-based security IPs can be used for setting, configuration, encryption and data protection functions. We already have several projects ongoing with customers for relevant applications. 

What is the difference between NeoPUF and Synopsys' DesignWare tRoot H5 hardware security module?
  • To compare with Synopsys tRoot, our PUF based solution is PUFcc, developed by our subsidiary, PUFsecurity. Synopsys’s solution is pure digital design, which contains security algorithms. The key for root of trust is generated from algorithms and needs to be injected through an external security environment. Our PUFcc includes PUF, secure OTP, tRNG and anti-tampering design. For our PUF based root of trust, the key is inborn by the chip itself, which is more secure and cost-efficient.

Palo Alto Networks can also use software to achieve a“zero-trust network access” from the cloud, and generate public and private keys. What are the advantages of eMemory compared to Palo Alto Networks?
  • NeoPUF is a fingerprint that comes with the chip itself. This fingerprint can be used to generate the chip's genetic public and private keys. If the key pair is generated by software solutions, it needs to be stored into the chip. To do so, it must be injected through an external security environment, which is not secure, as mentioned before. In comparison, a genetic root of trust is more secure and cost-efficient.

For advanced packages such as CoWos, InFo and other 2.5D/3D packages, what functions or benefits can eMemory's IPs provide for customers who adopt?
  • For multichip package, 1) eMemory’s OTP IP provides the in-package repair function for DRAM, calibration function for Power Management, Display, and Image Sensors.

    Therefore, in this aspect, our IP improves the yield of multichip package.

    2) PUFsecurity IPs are for security functions in the security Chip of multichip package. In this aspect, our IPs enable the security of the subsystem.

Are there any network effects with the adoption of NeoPUF? That is, are hardware security protocols easier to implement if everyone uses the same PUF? Such that if one leading company adopts NeoPUF, then others will follow and NeoPUF will become the industry standard?
  • From our history, we always create new IP solutions to disrupt traditional usage. NeoPUF is new to the industry and will be used for security. If a leading company or multiple companies adopt this solution, it will provide better security to their hardware and the rest of the industry will start to follow. In other words, these companies will become the early adopters and the early majorities will follow, this is what you call the network effect. Therefore, the answer is yes.

What process nodes/applications does PUF target?
  • The range is quite large since any applications that require security can adopt PUF. For example, 14nm for IoT applications, 55nm for MCU applications, 28nm for AI applications, 16nm for AI applications as well, and 7nm and below for GPU, FPGA and DPU. Further, 5nm and 3nm is for confidential computing. As you can see, there is a whole range of process nodes and applications for PUF as long as they require security.

What are the key risks to your continued growth success? Any emerging competitors?
  • Our biggest risk is the global economy. If the economy is not good, demand for electronic devices will decrease and chip companies will decrease production, which will affect our royalty. For emerging competitors, currently we are not afraid of competition because the basis of our technology is our OTP technology, which we spent 20 years building on more than 400 platforms worldwide.

    Moreover, our PUF is based on NeoFuse, which is a hard IP.  Hard IPs need to be verified at the foundry process the customer wants, which normally takes a very long time if starting from scratch. We do not think any emerging competitors can achieve this and so, we are confident that we will become a major player.

What are the advantages of your OTP-based PUF vs. SRAM PUF?
  • This is a question our customers always ask about when they are looking to switch over. SRAM PUF’s random numbers are generated based on the mismatch of back-to-back inverters. Yet, as technology scales down, operating voltage will scale down. As a result, the threshold voltage control has to be very tight so that the mismatch in SRAM will be smaller. This affects the stability of the random numbers generated, leading to SRAM PUF to become instable and therefore risky for customers who are using it to store their secret key. Due to the instability, the system will lose the key and crash.

    Our PUF is based on our OTP technology, which is already proven. Our PUF has a 10+ year’s lifetime and since we have qualified our technology, there is no issue on the stability of the random numbers generated by PUF. Ultimately, our PUF is the most stable for use in private keys since the numbers generated by PUF are random, unique, and stable.

What applications do MRAM target for Chinese customers?
  • There is currently a big market in China for automotive and we all know that for the technologies in 28nm or below, traditional embedded flash is high-cost and difficult to become successful. That is why emerging memory, such as MRAM, is taking off to replace traditional embedded flash. One of the biggest advantages of MRAM is that it is subject to high-temperatures because the charge loss in MRAM is only affected by changes in the magnetic field. In China, they are trying to use embedded MRAM in high-end MCU to replace current embedded flash because automotive chips need to operate at higher temperatures than consumer devices.

What is the difference between eMemory’s root-of-trust and those provided by other companies in the market? Is there really a need for PUF?
  • Root-of-trust is mainly to provide the trust foundation for the secure operation of chips and devices and to certify the originality of the operating system and software. 

    The general practice is to write and store the key for security authentication in eFuse, which doesn’t have any protection against attacks. This key is used to perform secure operations within a crypto algorithm.

    Customers will encounter two key problems when using it:

    1.    Without safe storage and protection, the key will be easily stolen and the root-of-trust can be easily breeched.
    2.    Customers need to design their own true random number generator (tRNG) to match the crypto operation. Qualified tRNG requires the entropy of analog design. Generally, customers do not have enough professional R&D and know-how to develop the design. Without PUF, the key, which is the basis of trust can be cracked and stolen. 

    Our PUFrt utilizes PUF to provide immutable inborn secret required by the root-of-trust. The unique identity (chip fingerprint) of PUF can be used as the basis of trust for secure boot, key protection and software authentication.

    PUFrt hard macro also provides an entropy source with each chip's own unique chip fingerprint to generate true random numbers. That is, each chip has a tRNG with its own unique chip fingerprint, which will not be easily cracked and improves operational security. In addition, all the security operations in PUFrt are enclave with Anti-tampering by using PUF itself to defend all kinds of attacks.

eMemory recently announced its cooperation with Intel’s foundry. Will this affect your collaboration with TSMC?
  • Our collaboration with Intel is mainly focused on digital product applications below 16nm, such as AI, SoC, CPU, DPU, GPU, OEM customers that require security. Advanced process customers in TSMC also have the same security requirements. Our cooperation with TSMC will continue to strengthen as we move forward to more advanced processes.  

Is eMemory worried about the oversupply of 8-in mature processes?
  • Our 8-in design activities are still very strong, indicating that although some products are migrating to 12-in, there are still new product applications being developed in 8-in. In addition, there are no new 8-in factories built and many applications are more suitable to manufacture in 8-in. For example, power management chips for electric vehicles have little chance of moving to 12-in since it’s not economical.

    Moreover, due to the very tight wafer production, many new applications are lack of capacity for production. More capacity will help new customers and new products have enough production capacity, which is not a bad thing.

    As our 12-in NeoFuse enters a period of rapid growth, its proportion has exceeded the contributions of 8-in and is progressing below 16nm, which contains much higher royalty per wafer, also for higher royalties from new technologies, such as security and MTP-related IPs. So, we think there is enough driving force beside 8-in.

Are Chinese IP competitors a threat to eMemory?
  • For quite a long time, one or two small companies in China have been providing similar technologies in the legacy node but with very limited customers.  

    The technology we developed is the most fundamental semiconductor transistor, needs to be patented, requires time to be verified in each foundry process, needs to accumulate production records before widely adoption, need to have process availability in worldwide foundries, and have capability to migrating into more leading edge. 

    These are not available to the Chinese companies which have limited resources to access to foundries outside China, nor technical capabilities. This is evident from the substantial growth in our licensing fees from China in the past.

DDI and PMIC account for a considerable proportion of the company’s revenue. After the rapid growth in the last two years, there may be oversupply and inventory correction. Will this affect eMemory?
  • The substantial growth in revenue of chip companies in the past two years is largely due to the increase in chip prices as a result of chip shortages in the market. Shipment growth is nowhere near that of revenue and we don’t think that there is a serious inventory problem.

    Our growth in major applications is mainly due to the increase in market share. Taking DDI for example, the growth is driven by our market share gain of largest Korea OLED chip maker. We believe this segment will continue to grow this year as higher foundry wafer price and more OLED contribution. Similar to the situation of PMIC.
     

What will be eMemory's business model if you co-work with a big shark like Arm in security applications? Do we still charge the same 1-2% of wafer cost as royalty?
  • In our business model for important CPU manufacturers, in addition to providing our OTP for security storage, we also provide PUFrt and other security IPs to strengthen security protection, so as to offer the best security solutions to customers. Furthermore, other than our OTP royalties, we will also collect security IP-related licensing fees and royalties which will contribute to our revenue.

Historically, it would take up to three years to collect royalty after licensing. Does eMemory expect a more rapid adoption in the future?
  • As our IP is adopted in more and more applications and technologies nodes, there will be more off-the-shelf IPs for customers to choose from. This facilitates customer’s progress towards mass production, so we do expect the period before collecting royalties to shorten.

Regarding the partnership with Arm, Arm has its own trust zone architecture, how is it different from PUFsecurity’s PUFrt? In addition, OTP technologies have been around for a long time, what are the barriers from OTP to developing OTP-PUF?
  • In Arm’s trust zone, highly sensitive applications is operated and separated from general applications in terms of the program or data used. In the new Armv9 confidential computing architecture, PUFrt, the hardware root-of-trust, will provide keys and random numbers required when trust zone operates. That is, PUFrt enables confidential computing and is the most important function in chip security.

    PUF is derived from our OTP technology which use two OTP cells to generate “0” and “1” by comparing the quantum tunneling current of these two cells. Since our OTP have been developed in worldwide major foundries, many processes, including advanced processes, so our PUF is also ready in those platforms. 

    Deriving PUF cells from OTP requires brand new invention so that the PUF design can magnify manufacturing variation to generate random numbers. Our NeoPUF is exactly this type of fundamental patent.

Will the popular 2.5D/3D packaging, in-memory computing, etc. affect the promotion of eMemory IPs? Will this be a positive or negative impact?
  • For the current popular 2.5D/3D packaging, because multiple ICs need to be stacked, there will be higher requirements for the yield of each IC in order to maintain a certain yield after packaging. Our NVM IP can be used to adjust and repair IC functions after production, which will help customers improve the yield of each IC. Thus, it will have a positive impact for our IPs.

The application of display technology has developed towards MiniLED and MicroLED. Apple products have also begun to use MiniLED. Is our IP applied to MiniLED?
  • Currently, MiniLED is mainly used as a backlight source or with DDI module. Similar to regular DDI, MiniLED also needs trimming and configuration settings, which will require OTP and MTP. However, the current design of each company is different, so it is not as standardized as DDI. We already have customers using MiniLED and we expect to generate more NTOs in the future. 

What are the differences and competitiveness of NeoFlash vs. traditional eFlash?
  • NeoFlash only needs two to three more extra mask layers than logic process, whereas, traditional embedded Flash needs at least 10 to 15 additional mask layers than logic process. Therefore, NeoFlash is low cost, high yield, and has a faster cycle time than traditional embedded Flash.